Abstract : This paper studies the number of extrema (and their positions) of a countinuous Morse function on the Brillouin zone, when it is invariant by the point group symmetry of the crystal. Forty years ago, Vanhove had shown the importance of this problem in physics, but he could use only the crystal translational symmetry. In that case Morse theory predicts at least eight extrema. With the added use of general symmetry arguments we show that this number is larger for six of the 14 classes of Bravais lattices ; moreover it is possible to give the position of the extrema (and their nature) for 30 of the 73 arithmetic classes.This paper is written for a larger audience than that of solid state physicists ; it also defines carefully the necessary crystallographic concepts which are generally poorly understood in the solid state literature.]]>

Abstract : For systems with a symmetry group G, the description of physical phenomena corresponding to a representation of G, depends only on the image of this representation.The classification of the images of the unirreps (unitary irreductible representations) of the little space groups Gk is remarkably simple. The nearly four thousands inequivalent unirreps corresponding to high symmetry wave vectors k have only 37 inequivalent images.]]>

Abstract : An energy band in a solid contains an infinite number of states which transform linearly as a space group representation induced from a finite dimensional representation of the isotropy group of a point in space. A band representation is elementary if it cannot be decomposed as a direct sum of band representations; it describes a single band. We give a complete classification of the inequivalent elementary band representations.]]>