Abstract :Denoting these bounds by Nd(n), 0 ? d ? n we prove that Nd(n)/(n + 1)! is a polynomial Pd(n) of degree d with rational coefficients. We give the polynomials for d ? 5 explicitly. The proof uses the fact that these bounds Nd(n) are also the number of d-faces of the Voronoï cell of the weight lattice of the Lie algebra An (it is also the Cayley diagram of the symmetric group Sn+1, which is isomorphic to the Weyl group of An). Each d-face of this cell is a zonotope that can be defined by a symmetry group ~ G d (?), (d-dimensional reflection subgroup of the A n Weyl group. We show that for a given d and n large enough, all such subgroups of A n are represented, and we compute explicitly N(G d (?),n) the number of d-faces of type G d (?) in the Voronoï cell of L = A w n. The final result is obtained by summing over a. That also yields the simple expression Nd(n)=(n+1?d)!S(n+1?d)n+1Nd(n)=(n+1?d)!Sn+1(n+1?d) where the last symbol is the Stirling number of second kind.]]>

Abstract : We present S. Lie's work on the symmetry of ODE (ordinary differential equations) : action of Diff 2(x,y), the Lie algebra of vector fields of the plane x, y, on the set of ODE ; general form of ODE with a given symmetry algebra ; computation of the symmetry algebra of a given equation. The original part of this conference studies the general linear equation of order n>2 (this has also be done independenty by Mohamed and Leach, ref. [9]). We also present in a more precise form the work of Lie on the finite dimensional subalgebras of Diff2. As an application, we classify the symmetries of second order equations.]]>